The Aspidochelone is creature, found in medieval bestiaries, that appears to be an island with trees, dunes, and rocky crevices—but is in reality a giant whale, sea turtle, or other sea monster. Sailors who unwittingly explored the ‘island’ found their ships and themselves in peril. Image: JaniceDuke
Uwan is a yokai who loudly says its own name (like a pokemon) with a disembodied voice, causing people to lose sleep. Teeth blackening was popular among noblemen and the warrior class in medieval Japan, so his black teeth may signify that he was originally one of them. From: Bakemono No E, 18th century
The medieval wound man, first appearing in the 15th century, was used by physicians and surgeons to communicate anatomy and how to heal different ailments. The diagrams showed the location of diseases, blood letting points, and anatomical correspondences to zodiac signs. Sources and more info on the Public Domain Review.
The Hellmouth is an entrance to hell that manifests as the open jaws of an infernal beast. Depictions of Hellmouths were common during the Middle Ages and Renaissance in manuscripts, and even as dramatic mechanical set pieces in theatrical productions.
- Detail of The Mouth of Hell, from the Book of Hours of Catherine of Cleves, 1440
- Vision de l’Enfer (Vision of Hell), from Les Visions du chevalier Tondal, 1475
- Ludolf of Saxony, Inferno, from Speculum Humanae Salvationis, 1455
- Lambert of Saint-Omer, Liber Floridu, 1250 – 1275
- Detail of Jugement Dernier – Damnés (Last Judgement – The Damned Souls), 1492
Initial Letters from “The Discouerie of Witchcraft..” by Reginald Scot, 1584. Source: Wellcome Library
Full title of book: “The discouerie of witchcraft, wherein the lewde dealing of witches and witchmongers is notablie detected, the knauerie of coniurors, the impietie of inchantors, the follie of soothsaiers, the impudent falshood of cousenors, the infidelitie of atheists, the pestilent practices of Pythonists, the curiositie of figurecasters, the vanitie of dreamers, the beggerlie art of Alcumystrie, the abhomination of idolatrie, the horrible art of poisoning, the vertue and power of naturall magike, and all the conueiances of legierdemaine and iuggling are deciphered. And many other things opened, which have long lien hidden, howbeit verie necessarie to be knowne. : Heerevnto is added a treatise vpon the nature and substance of spirits and diuels” Source: Wellcome Library
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Demons attacking a castle, La Forteresse de la foi, Alphonsus de Spina, France, 15th Century. Source: BVMM
Palmistry diagrams from a German Chiromantia. The left hands are meant are meant for men and the right hands are meant for women. Unknown Author, Late 15th century. From the Bavarian State Library
Hmyail are Armenian prayer scrolls, meant for the home and travel, that were used in the 17th century for sermons, magical formulas, and warding off demons. From: The Library of Congress
Demonic imagery from different books of hours. A Book of Hours was a type of Christian book popular in the Middle Ages that contained prayers, psalms, hymns and lessons that were meant to be read at certain hours of the day, everyday.
Belial is 68th of the 72 Spirits of Solomon. He’s infamous for spreading wickedness and guilt to humankind with sexual perversions. As a fallen angel, he was evil from the beginning and one of the first to rebel against god. From Litigatio Christi cum Belial, 1461.