The Italian manuscript Lusus naturae, Human and Natural Monstrosities, 18th Century, contained 54 watercolor illustrations of beasts and men with medical conditions or deformities, along with unworldly creatures. Source: John Rylands Library
The medieval wound man, first appearing in the 15th century, was used by physicians and surgeons to communicate anatomy and how to heal different ailments. The diagrams showed the location of diseases, blood letting points, and anatomical correspondences to zodiac signs. Sources and more info on the Public Domain Review.
The mandrake is a mythologized plant with a root that looks like a human figure. The root is poisonous and hallucinogenic, it was once a common anesthetic and potion ingredient. Legends say mandrakes scream and cry when uprooted—killing anyone who hears. So use safe harvesting methods! Image: Ernte eines Alrauns (Medicina antiqua), 1250