The Adversary is an archetype found across cultures, manifesting as figures such as Satan, the Devil, Iblis, Mephistopheles, and Samael. Sometimes depicted as separate from God and other times an agent of them, this figure represents the inclination of evil in humanity.
The Hellmouth is an entrance to hell that manifests as the open jaws of an infernal beast. Depictions of Hellmouths were common during the Middle Ages and Renaissance in manuscripts, and even as dramatic mechanical set pieces in theatrical productions.
Detail of The Mouth of Hell, from the Book of Hours of Catherine of Cleves, 1440
Vision de l’Enfer (Vision of Hell), from Les Visions du chevalier Tondal, 1475
Ludolf of Saxony, Inferno, from Speculum Humanae Salvationis, 1455
Lambert of Saint-Omer, Liber Floridu, 1250 – 1275
Detail of Jugement Dernier – Damnés (Last Judgement – The Damned Souls), 1492
El Tío (The Uncle) is the devil-like spirit who rules over the mines of Cerro Rico in Bolivia. Statues of this “Lord of the Underworld” can be found all throughout Cerro Ricco’s mines, with offerings like cigarettes, coca leaves, and alcohol left for protection and appeasement.
“Miners may be Christians when above ground, but when in the mine, El Tio is their only god.”
Beelzebub: his name is used as a nickname for the devil, but he’s a demon prince in his own right, known as “Lord of the Flies”. Originally a “false” god of the Philistines, he’s associated with the deadly sin of Gluttony has the power to turn men into animals and vice versa. From Dictionnaire Infernal, 1863
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