Alchemist and Magician Edward Kelly, in the act of invoking a spirit of the dead at the churchyard of Walton Ledale, from “The book of black magic and of pacts” by A.E. Waite, 1898. The companion in the circle is likely Paul Waring, who helped him with all of his conjurations.
Magic circle diagrams. The diagrams are to be copied on to the floor, and stood on for protection while practicing magick, particularly when summoning, spirits, fae, and demons. From “The discouerie of witchcraft” by Reginald Scot, 1584. Source: Wellcome Library